Both in its preliminary report from Yokohama, Japan and its recently released request for proposals, ICANN has set out a number of basic concerns regarding the introduction of new top-level domains (TLDs). Among the most important of these concerns to ICANN are the following six central concepts that should be reflected in proposals for new TLDs:
· The need to maintain the Internet’s stability and especially the protection of domain name holders from the effects of registry or registration-system failure
· The extent to which selection of the proposal would lead to an effective “proof of concept” concerning the introduction of top-level domains in the future, including the diversity the proposal would bring to the program—fully open top-level domains, restricted and chartered domains with limited scope, commercial domains, and personal domains—in support of a variety of business models and geographic locations
· The enhancement of competition for registration services at the registry and registrar level
· The enhancement of the utility of the DNS
· The extent to which the proposal would meet previously unmet needs
· The importance of appropriate protection of rights of others, including intellectual property rights in connection with the operation of the TLD, especially during the start-up phases
The policies developed by or for new TLD registries will provide, in major part, the framework for meeting ICANN’s goals and addressing any concerns. The JVTeam policy proposals outlined below will address ICANN’s concerns and provide for a stable and competitive TLD registry.
JVTeam is conscious that the first round introduction of new TLDs will provide vital information for the ongoing development of the DNS. JVTeam also is aware that the existing mechanisms and policies implemented by ICANN have, on the whole, been very successful in maintaining the stability of the Internet. As such, the concepts being proposed by JVTeam have been developed with a view to extending and enhancing the existing DNS environment in a measured, even handed manner. This approach does not preclude innovation but rather it promotes the carefully considered, responsible evolution of the DNS. The concepts being evaluated represent substantial, incremental enhancements to the domain name system as well as solutions to several pre-existing issues. The JVTeam proposal is premised on paving the way for the stable growth of the domain name system.
The introduction of new TLDs is entirely uncharted territory. The domain name system has for the most part remained unchanged since its inception. There have been several forward steps such as the introduction of TLD registrar competition in 1999 and the addition of several ccTLDs. There has been significant progress made in laying the foundation for new TLDs leading up to the current ICANN program, including an initial recommendations document in 1997 and the meetings in Yokohama, Japan. However, several issues have not been resolved to general acceptance. Some of these issues have been technical in nature while others have involved intellectual property issues and an effective solution to the complexities presented by the start-up period.
In recent years, the most significant change in the DNS environment has been the sheer enormity of its growth as well as the increasingly critical role that it plays in global commerce and communications. So while it may have been possible in the late ’80s to implement major modifications with little concern over the impact of such modifications, the breadth of the DNS, as it currently exists, makes the level of risk inherent in modifications far greater today. The world needs the domain name system to grow, but it simply cannot afford a domain name system that is not stable.
It is for this reason that the JVTeam solution is focused on evolutionary rather than revolutionary changes to the DNS. The concepts being proposed for evaluation have been chosen because they represent incremental enhancements that absolutely maintain the stability of the Internet, that facilitate the growth of the DNS, and that provide simple solutions to complex problems.
To the extent that JVTeam’s policy proposals vary from existing ICANN policies and procedures, they do so largely to reflect JVTeam’s absolute belief that the registry operator must operate as a trusted neutral third-party in the provision of DNS services and to address new functionality in the new TLD. Access to DNS services is critical to entities wishing to participate in the DNS industry specifically and in Internet business generally. Domain names are the means by which businesses and consumers gain access to, navigate and reap the benefits of the worldwide web. These benefits cannot be fully realized, however, unless policies are in place to ensure that DNS resources are administered in a fair and efficient manner that makes them available to all parties desiring to provide DNS services. In order to meet this goal, JVTeam submits that DNS services by a registry must be administered to meet the following objectives:
· Facilitate entry into the DNS marketplace by making DNS resources available on an efficient, timely basis to registrars and registrants
· Unduly favor or disadvantage any particular industry segment or group of consumers
· Ensure that interests of all DNS constituents are considered and addressed fairly and efficiently.
To ensure that JVTeam meets these objectives, it commits to strict adherence to the following registry Code of Conduct:
REGISTRY CODE OF CONDUCT
JVTeam will at all times operate as a trusted neutral third-party provider of DNS registry services. JVTeam recognizes that domain names are the means by which businesses, consumers, and individuals gain access to, navigate, and reap the benefits of the global Internet. These benefits cannot be fully realized, however, unless DNS resources are administered in a fair, efficient, and neutral manner that makes them available to all parties desiring to provide DNS services. To ensure the provision of neutral registry services, JVTeam will comply with the following Code of Conduct.
1. JVTeam will never, directly or indirectly, show any preference or provide any special consideration to any company that is a DNS registry provider or registrar services provider, as those terms are defined by ICANN, including any affiliated registry or registrar
2. All ICANN accredited registrars shall have equal access to those JVTeam registry services operated directly by JVTeam. In those instances where JVTeam operates as the backend technical services provider for another ICANN accredited registry, access to the services of that registry will be determined by that ICANN accredited registry
3. JVTeam shall not in any way attempt to warehouse or register domain names in its own right, except for names designated for operational purposes
4. Any shareholder, subsidiary, affiliate, or other related entity of JVTeam that also operates as a provider of registrar services shall maintain separate books of account with respect to its registrar operations
5. Neither JVTeam, nor its shareholders, subsidiaries, affiliates, or other related entities shall have access to user data or proprietary information of a registrar served by JVTeam, except as necessary for registry operations
6. JVTeam will ensure that no user data or proprietary information from any registrar is disclosed to its affiliates, subsidiaries, or other related entities
7. Confidential information about JVTeam’s business services will not be shared with employees of any DNS services provider
8. No member of JVTeam’s Board of Directors will simultaneously serve on the Board of Directors of a registrar that obtains registry services from JVTeam
9. No employee of JVTeam will hold a greater than 5% interest, financial or otherwise in a company that obtains registry services from JVTeam
10. No employee of JVTeam will also be an employee of any JVTeam subsidiary, affiliate or other related entity that also operates as a provider of registrar services
11. No employee of any JVTeam subsidiary, affiliate or related entity that also operates as a provider of registrar services will also be an employee of JVTeam
12. JVTeam will ensure that no user data from or proprietary information of any registry operated or controlled by JVTeam is disclosed to any other registry operated or controlled by JVTeam
13. JVTeam will conduct internal neutrality reviews on a regular basis. In addition, JVTeam will allow ICANN to hire an independent party, at ICANN’s expense, to conduct a neutrality review of JVTeam, ensuring that JVTeam and its shareholders comply with all the provisions of this registry Code of Conduct. JVTeam and ICANN will mutually agree upon the neutrality analyst. The neutrality review may be conducted as often as once per year. JVTeam will provide the analyst with reasonable access to information and records necessary to complete the review. The results of the review will be provided to ICANN and shall be deemed to be confidential and proprietary information of JVTeam and its shareholders
The concepts proposed in the JVTeam policy proposal are built on the strengths of an intimate knowledge of the DNS and a commitment to the ongoing development of a stable Internet environment. Only JVTeam can bring to this process the knowledge, skills, and experience necessary to understand the importance of this process to the long-term future of the DNS. Only the JVTeam has the ability, experience, and resources to facilitate the next step in the evolution of the domain name system.
JVTeam largely will follow proven Internet and DNS policies developed by ICANN and the Internet Community at large. This approach will ensure the continued stability and consistent operation of the DNS and recognizes the consensus efforts of ICANN.
Significant effort by ICANN and the Internet Community has gone into the development of policies to govern the relationships between ICANN, TLD registries, TLD registrars, and Internet end-users. These efforts have resulted in the development of a workable shared registry model that encourages competition and Internet stability, as well as protects the individual rights of Internet users. Recognizing these efforts and the need to maintain consistent Internet governance models, JVTeam will utilize as basic models the existing ICANN registrar Accreditation Agreement, NSI registrar License and Agreement, ICANN-NSI Registry Agreement, and the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy, with only minor modifications as described herein. These modifications are designed primarily to ensure the neutrality of the registry, to account for certain identified aspects of the JVTeam proposal, or to account for differences brought about because these original policies and agreements were designed, at least partially, to facilitate a transition from a monopoly registry to a shared registry system.
JVTeam proposes to establish .biz as a domain space on the Internet for commercial use. Such a space currently is lacking.
JVTeam proposes to offer registry services for the .biz TLD as an unsponsored, restricted TLD. .biz domain names will be offered for registration by businesses for commercial uses only and not for personal use. The TLD shall be restricted to any individual, organization, or entity that desires to advertise their business and/or conduct commercial activities on the Internet.
As an additional value added service, JVTeam proposes to offer the option for these businesses to elect to register certain information with a participating ICANN-accredited registrar to allow registrars to create business directories for consumers to easier locate the registrant on the Internet. Such information may include, but is not limited to, a description of the business, its corresponding SIC code, the number of employees, the location of the headquarters, etc. This opt-in information will be stored by the JVTeam in a file that will be made available to the public at no fee. It is envisioned that such information will be compiled by entrepreneurial businesses that will repackage and add to the information in new and innovative ways to provide a value-added offering of their own.
These innovative uses will provide for an excellent “proof of concept” for new functionality and address currently unmet needs using the DNS.
In order to provide for the most competitive and economically viable commercial alternative to .com, JVTeam proposes to register .biz TLDs at the second level only, identical to .com registrations. This will help ICANN by ensuring consumer recognition and supporting a competitive DNS.
.biz registrations will be made at the second level (as in registered-name.biz). JVTeam’s market research indicates that there would be a significant drop off in registration volumes for .biz if registrations were made at a level higher than the third. Because one of the important criterion for ICANN’s “proof of concept” TLD rollout is the creation of a competitive DNS, JVTeam submits that .biz should be registered in a manner similar to .com, despite its restricted nature, in order to satisfy consumer expectation.
JVTeam will abide by full Internet standards regarding naming and reserved names, including RFC 1034, RFC 1123, RFC 2606, and RFC 2352.
JVTeam will operate the registry as a neutral third-party provider. Consistent with neutrality requirements, however, JVTeam will follow existing policy models for registry-registrar relations. This approach will ensure that the Internet Community perceives JVTeam as a trusted, unbiased provider of core Internet DNS functionality while providing the registry and registrar industries with consistent, well-known, and stable business models for operation and use of the new TLD.
Among the most important aspects of the JVTeam neutrality policy will be the registry’s relationship with registrars. As noted above, the registry controls a vital input in the DNS industry – the names themselves. As a result, any favoritism or unfair treatment, perceived or real, of one registrar over another may harm significantly competition in the DNS industry. Therefore, JVTeam has taken strong steps to ensure that registrars are presented with a level playing field with respect to the provisioning of registry services.
In order to ensure a level playing field, a truly neutral registry operator, and the continued open, stable and technically consistent operation of the Internet, JVTeam proposes largely to follow the existing guidelines for registry/registrar relations established by ICANN for the .com, .net, and .org registries. This approach will ensure that the industry model will be well established and familiar to registries, registrars and consumers. Such stability and consistency in the models used for the introduction of new TLDs will prove highly beneficial to a successful “proof of concept” because ICANN will have relevant reference points in existing TLDs.
Domain-name holders will deal with the registry through registrars. The registry will avoid direct relationships with domain name holders in order to ensure its continued neutrality. A neutral third-party operator such as JVTeam must not be perceived as competing with its customers (i.e., the registrars in this case) and therefore JVTeam will not deal directly on a customer-provider basis with the domain name holder. Moreover, this approach preserves established DNS business models and will increase DNS competition at the registrar level.
As the registry operator, JVTeam will be responsible for the provision of high-quality, efficient and neutral TLD registry services including registration and Whois services and database management services. The registrars will be responsible for domain name holder registrations, customer relations, and additional services.
JVTeam’s strict adherence to the registry Code of Conduct discussed above will ensure that no registrar is treated unfairly vis-ŕ-vis JVTeam services and that no registrar or group of registrars will be able to unduly influence JVTeam’s operations and services. Under this model, the registrars will be responsible for all consumer/end-user relations and the registry will be responsible for the fair, efficient, and high-quality technical operation of the registry itself. Thus the registry maintains unquestioned neutrality and can implement, so long as technically feasible, any registrar policy adopted by ICANN for the benefit of the Internet community.
Unlike the existing registry, however, JVTeam proposes to operate a “fat” registry. This “fat” registry will centralize the databases normally associated with the registry but typically operated separately by each registrar. The decentralized approach is inefficient, requiring significant duplication of efforts and resources. JVTeam intends to eliminate such duplications and, using the associated economies of scale, reduce the costs of DNS services to the registrars.
In order to encourage the rapid implementation of the new TLD, promote strong competition among registrars and registries, and ensure the continued neutrality of the registry, JVTeam will provide registry services to all existing and future ICANN accredited registrars without material restriction. Eligibility to use the registry will be subject only to technical testing and approval by JVTeam technical staff, the payment of a registrar deposit (to cover initial registrations), and the execution of a registrar License and Agreement similar to that required for existing registrars in the .com TLD.
Because JVTeam proposes an open shared registry, there will be no restrictions on the number of registrars permitted to register names in the system. The only limitations on the number of registrars will be interest within the industry and ICANN’s ability to process and approve accreditation applications.
All existing and future ICANN accredited registrars will be eligible to operate as registrars to the new TLD. No specific selections have been or need be made.
All selections will be made on the basis of ICANN accreditation only. JVTeam is prepared to assist ICANN if needed in the accreditation of new registrars, subject to final ICANN approval.
JVTeam will have a registrar License and Agreement with each registrar that operates with the registry. The agreement explicitly will require that each registrar comply with all TLD policies of ICANN and the registry and further will require the registrars to mandate registrant certification that they are businesses and will only use the domain name for business and commercial purposes. Although based closely on the NSI registrar License and Agreement, certain modifications will be made to ensure that TLD policies are implemented.
Of particular importance to the registrar Agreement will be a registrar Code of Conduct. JVTeam must have a workable mechanism for requiring registrars to follow important TLD policies. Therefore, the Code of Conduct, which will be developed in consultation with the registrars, will set out required conduct for registrars, violation of which will be grounds for termination of the registrar/registry relationship. The Agreement will also, of course, provide an opportunity to cure breaches of the registrar Code of Conduct and also will establish a reconsideration process in the event of termination. JVTeam believes that this approach will provide sufficient means to ensure policy implementation and compliance by the registrars.
Since well before the formation of ICANN, intellectual property owners have debated whether new TLDs should be introduced into the DNS and how to protect their trademarks and globally famous marks on the Internet. On April 30, 1999, the World Intellectual Property Organization recommended to ICANN a proposal for providing a mechanism to protect globally famous trademarks in any new TLDs. ICANN’s Domain Name Support Organization (DNSO) thereafter created Working Group B to address the issue of whether protection should be given to famous names in the DNS. However, there has never been, within the Internet community, a true consensus on the appropriate mechanism.
The most current proposal, set forth by the Intellectual Property Constituency (IPC) of the DNSO, and supported by the International Trademark Association, and the American Intellectual Property Organization, and which has gained some support among the Internet community, advocates a “Daybreak Proposal” to be incorporated into the rollout of new gTLDs. During the “Daybreak Period,” owners of trademarks and service marks would be able to register their marks as domain names on a first-come-first-served basis in a new TLD before that new domain is made available to the general public. The trademark owner would only be permitted, however, to register their exact trademark as a domain name during this period.
Under the IPC proposal, any owner of a valid national trademark registration is eligible to seek registration of a domain name during the Daybreak period, provided that the national registration for that mark was issued at least one (1) year prior to the date on which the mark owner applies to register the mark. The registry (or registrar) would not be required to validate the fact that the person/entity has a valid national registration prior to the registration of the domain name. The proposal, however, does contemplate a “take down” procedure if it is brought to a registry/registrar’s attention by an entity that has intellectual property rights in a domain name, that an entity registered a domain name during the Daybreak period, which was not eligible to take advantage of the Daybreak period at the time the domain name was requested.
Critics of the Daybreak Proposal, including the United States Small Business Administration and the Non-commercial Constituency of the DNSO, argue that:
· The Daybreak Proposal is not grounded in law.
· The Daybreak provision will not be effective in curbing trademark violations since only the exact corresponding mark will be allowed to be registered early.
· The Uniform Dispute Resolution Procedures established by ICANN coupled with the new Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act adequately protect the interests of trademark owners without the need for Daybreak provisions.
· The Daybreak Proposal arbitrarily sets a one-year requirement on having a trademark registration, thereby ignoring the legitimate trademark rights of companies with common law trademark rights and even those with national trademark registrations that are less than one year old.
· There is a possibility that such provisions could subject ICANN to liability for restraint of trade in violation of Sections 1 and 2 of the Sherman Act.
In addition, critics argue that under the IPC’s Daybreak Proposal, there would be nothing to stop an individual or entity from fraudulently registering generic domain names during the Daybreak period even with a “take down” procedure. This would not only be an abuse of the Daybreak provisions, but would also deny all other users of the Internet from registering those marks on a first-come first-serve basis when the TLDs are introduced to the public at-large. Critics claim that this is primarily because no one has a legitimate intellectual property right to use the generic mark as a domain name and, therefore, no one has standing to challenge such a fraudulent registration.
Given the lack of consensus within the industry regarding an effective and fair mechanism for protecting intellectual property rights during start-up of a new TLD, and recognizing that it is not within the purview of a registry to preside over intellectual property disputes, JVTeam does not intend to adopt the Daybreak Proposal. Rather, JVTeam seeks to operate in a neutral manner that does not favor on right holder over another. Adequate mechanisms exist for the protection of intellectual property rights, including the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy established by ICANN, and the courts. Therefore, while JVTeam is cognizant of the needs of intellectual property right holder and intends to implement mechanisms for assisting such holders, JVTeam does not intend to establish preferential registrar mechanisms.
As noted above, intellectual property violations are not properly within the purview of the registry. Rather, such matters must be left to the UDRP service providers and the courts. JVTeam will, of course, abide by the decisions of the UDRP service providers and any court of proper jurisdiction, but it cannot be responsible for making determinations regarding intellectual property rights. Therefore, JVTeam proposes to establish no initial mechanisms to prevent a given domain name registration, with the exception of the notification mechanism described below.
Despite JVTeam’s intent in this matter, it understands that ICANN has been charged with consideration of the intellectual property issues raised by the introduction of new TLDs. JVTeam will implement, to the extent technically feasible, any intellectual property protection mechanism or policy mandated by ICANN, including the IPC’s Daybreak Proposal. Appendices 1 and 2 contain JVTeam’s proposed modified UDRP and UDRP rules. The modified UDRP contains the manner in which JVTeam would implement the Daybreak Proposal, as well as a mechanism for challenging a registrant for violation of the business and commercial restrictions of the .biz TLD.
As a neutral third party provider, JVTeam cannot be perceived as favoring intellectual property owners over non-commercial interests. Therefore, JVTeam proposes no pre-screening of registrations that would result in the necessary refusal of a registration. However, recognizing that certain registrants might seek to violate the intellectual property rights of a business or businesses through a .biz registration, JVTeam proposes to establish a system to notify participating intellectual property rights holders of potential infringing registrations.
JVTeam will implement a system whereby, for a fee to cover costs, an intellectual property right claimant would register a string with the registry. The claimant would then be notified if a registrant registered a domain name that contained that string. The intellectual property claimant then would be able to monitor the use of the domain name to ensure that its use did not violate intellectual property rights. A complete description of this service can be viewed in Registry Operators Proposal Section II.2.1.
The JVTeam recognizes the complexities raised by intellectual property issues and will provide a service whereby interested parties are able to monitor registration of domains, which may infringe their intellectual property concerns. This service would be facilitated by the registry but would be offered and administered via registrars.
The points below provide a high-level overview of the operation of the Intellectual Property Notification Service prior to the live date of the new TLD. However, the process would continue to be in operation once normal registration operations have commenced.
Phase 1: The registry provides advance information describing the process—Ninety days prior to the registry going live, a notification will be placed on the ICANN web site advising of the process for interested parties to enroll in the Intellectual Property Notification Service. This may also be broadcast by providing a button to accredited registrars to place on their web sites. The button will link to the ICANN site and would include a title such as “Enroll in the Intellectual Property Notification Service for new TLDs.” During this time, information kits will be freely distributed to the press, registrars and the general public. The kits will provide detailed information regarding the Intellectual Property Notification Service and how it can be utilized.
Phase 2: The registry accepts pre-registration enrollments—During a period of 30 days prior to the “Live Registration date,” entities who hold a registered trademark may lodge a request to be notified when a domain name, which they believe may infringe their intellectual property rights, is registered. To activate this system, the entity completes an online form. The form is intended to capture details of the party claiming intellectual property over a particular domain name together with the justification for that claim. Since this system is intended to afford protection to parties with genuine, registered trademarks, the registration details of the trademark will also be captured.
Below is an example of the information required from an entity wishing to enroll in this service.
· Domain name
· Exact trademark
· Country of registration
· Trademark or other reference number
· Date of first use
· Contact details including: trademark holder entity name, address, phone, fax, and email
· Contact person name, address, phone, fax, email, and relationship to trademark holder entity
· Additional comments.
Each submission will contain only one string and in order to activate this service, a nominal fee per submission will be required. This fee will cover administrative costs as well as providing a mechanism to discourage “frivolous” use of the service.
After a trademark holder has successfully lodged a request to be notified, they are advised that their submission has been received but that their submission in no way guarantees that the name will be reserved for or allocated to them and that there may be other parties claiming intellectual property over that particular domain name. They are also provided information regarding the Universal Charter Dispute Resolution Policy (UCDRP).
At the registry system level, the domain name (which doesn’t yet exist as a registered name) has attached to it a code indicating that someone has claimed intellectual property rights over that name.
Phase 3: The registry begins accepting registrations and notifies of possible trademark infringement—When an application is lodged for a domain name which has been enrolled with the Intellectual Property Notification Service, the domain name applicant is advised that a third party or parties have claimed intellectual property rights over that domain name, they are directed to the section of the UCDRP / registration agreement that refers to intellectual property infringements and that the license may be removed from them if they are acting in “bad faith.” The applicant is not prevented from completing the registration.
Once the application has been completed, all parties who have engaged the notification service for that exact domain name are advised by email that “a party” has registered that domain name. Included in the email will be further information on the UCDRP and an explanation of steps to take for further dispute action.
The Intellectual Property Notification Service will provide an additional level of protection for holders of registered national trademarks and will work in conjunction with the UDRP to discourage incidences of domain names being registered in bad faith.
JVTeam believes that intellectual property disputes, however, are not properly within the purview of the registry. Rather, such matters must be left to the UDRP and the courts. JVTeam will, of course, abide by the decisions of the UDRP agents and any court of proper jurisdiction, but it cannot be responsible for making determinations regarding intellectual property rights. Therefore, JVTeam proposes to establish no initial mechanisms to prevent a given domain name registration, with the possible exception of the notification mechanism described above.
JVTeam stresses, however, that it will not refuse any registrations through this program.
The mechanism discussed above will assist intellectual property holders in policing their intellectual property rights and will help to curb infringing registrations. JVTeam also is cognizant, however, of the fact that registrants may violate the commercial requirement of the TLD or engage in other violations of intellectual property using a registered .biz domain name. To address violations of the commercial restriction, JVTeam has developed, and proposes the adoption of, the UCDRP. This proposal consists of simple modifications to the existing UDRP to allow UDRP agents to entertain complaints for violations of the Charter. Upon a finding of violation of the Charter, the offending domain name would be deleted. A copy of the UCDRP is attached hereto as Appendix 1.
JVTeam will, of course, comply with all applicable laws. However, existing trademark and cybersquatting legislation will not require specific action by JVTeam, particularly in the .biz domain space.
Because JVTeam must maintain its neutral standing, no further famous trademark protections beyond those discussed above will be required. The notification program discussed above will assist famous trademark holders in policing their intellectual property.
JVTeam plans to operate as a “fat” registry in that it will maintain all relevant databases for the registry in a centralized fashion. This approach increases stability, security and fault tolerance of the registry. JVTeam will backup and escrow all data to ensure its integrity. The Whois database will be updated on a real-time basis and access will be provided subject to strict data privacy and security requirements.
In order to ensure up-to-date Whois data, included in the registrar Code of Conduct discussed above will be a provision requiring registrars to make “best commercial efforts” to maintain up-to-date registrant data. In addition, JVTeam intends to explore with the registrars the development of a 3-month Whois data update reminder system. Registrants would be asked every three months whether their Whois data remains accurate and would be provided with an update link if data were out of date. Moreover, JVTeam will design the registration system to only complete a registration if all registration data is complete.
A more detailed discussion and description of Whois services can be found in Registry Operator’s Proposal Section III.2.8 of this proposal.
As discussed above, JVTeam proposes evolutionary development of new TLD policies rather than revolutionary change. In keeping with this approach, JVTeam intends to implement the UDRP with no changes for trademark issues with the possible exception of an addition of a Daybreak implementation. The UDRP has been praised by both the Intellectual Property community as well as the Internet community as a whole. Therefore, JVTeam sees no reason not to follow the UDRP for abusive domain name registrations in which the domain name registrant is alleged to have violated the intellectual property rights of the Claimant by registering a domain name in bad faith.
Attached as Appendices 1 and 2 are copies of JVTeam’s proposed UCDRP and corresponding proposed Rules for Uniform Charter Dispute Resolution Policy, which not only incorporate the policy of addressing bad-faith intellectual property domain name disputes (as already implemented by ICANN), but also serve as a dispute procedure in the event that a registrant violates a specific registry Charter (for a Restricted TLD).
JVTeam, as a trusted neutral third-party registry, must maintain the trust of the registrars and the consumers. Therefore, JVTeam will not market, in any way, the registrant information obtained from registrars for purposes of running the registry, nor will it share that data with any unrelated third parties. The registry operator will only have access to such data as is necessary for operation of the registry itself and will use that data only for registry operation.
JVTeam will provide registrars with a mechanism for accessing and correcting personal data and will take reasonable steps to protect personal data from loss, misuse, unauthorized disclosure, alteration or destruction. To further secure registrant data, each registrant will have a secure password for his or her registry records. Only through use of this password will data be changed, registrars transferred, domain name servers be updated, etc. Registrars will develop, in consultation with the registry, secure password verification and authentication mechanisms. Moreover, as part of the registrar Code of Conduct, all registrars will be required to abide by all applicable international, national, and local laws.
JVTeam will maintain redundant data centers, as well as, follow the escrow requirements established by ICANN with respect to .com, .net, and .org. By so doing, JVTeam will ensure that all data necessary for operation of the registry will be available in the event of a catastrophic failure of the registry or following the selection by ICANN of a new registry. Please refer to Registry Operator’s Proposal Section III.2.7, Data Escrow and Backup, for a more detailed discussion of data escrow mechanisms.
The Whois database for .biz, like that available for the .com, .net and .org TLDs, will be a publicly available database. Each Whois database entity includes the following information for all second level Internet domain names registered in the TLD:
· Domain names
· Name servers
· IP addresses
· End user contacts information associated with the domain name
· Additional optional data elements for directory service.
The information set forth above will be available on a publicly accessible database searchable by domain name. A more detailed discussion of the Whois database can be found in Registry Operator’s Proposal Section III.2.8.
JVTeam’s billing and collections procedures will be consistent with existing industry procedures. All payments for new TLD registrations will be on an upfront payment basis. No registration will be completed until the registry receives payment. Because registry services to the registrant will be provided through the registrars, all billing and collections policy matters with respect to the registrant will be the responsibility of the registrars. The registry will implement for the registrars a five (5) day registration cancellation period for faulty registrations (for example misspelled domain names) or non-payment.
For a complete discussion of JVTeam’s proposed registry services and pricing, please refer to registry Operator’s Proposal Sections II.2.1 and I.9.
Because JVTeam proposes policy evolution rather than revolution, the policies discussed in response to specific ICANN questions represent the sum of JVTeam’s additional policy proposals. Should ICANN and the industry determine in the future that additional policies are necessary, JVTeam will consider further evolution of its TLD policies.
As no new TLDs have been introduced since .com, .net and .org, it is extremely difficult to establish accurate predictions of the initial volume of registration requests. While some basic assumptions will assist in defining boundaries, any solution to the start-up issues must take into account a degree of uncertainty and be able to provide contingencies for the case where demand greatly exceeds predictions.
JVTeam proposes to use a batch processing or “round robin” solution to address initial land rush.
As demonstrated in Exhibit II-1, the round robin solution will provide an effective and fair method for ensuring the stability of the new TLD and the Internet during the initial registration period.
Phase 1: Communication of the process—To ensure the smooth implementation of the start-up procedures, JVTeam will undertake a pro-active educational campaign with registrars. This will involve distribution of information kits by email as well as personal contact from the registry customer support staff and account managers. In this way, registrars will be ensured the opportunity for a complete understanding of the procedures and processes involved in the round robin solution.
Phase 2: Submission of registration lists—Each accredited registrar will provide a list of domain names and registration details. There will be no minimum or maximum limit for the lists. The registration files will be submitted via a secure transport mechanism before a specified closing time for first submissions. Registration lists cannot be modified until the first batch is processed and completed.
Phase 3: Randomly assigning a sequence position to each registrar—Immediately prior to processing the submitted lists, all registrars will be allocated a random position in numerical order. For example, if there are 100 registrars, each registrar is allocated a position between 1 and 100. Registrars will not be made aware of their assigned sequence in the round robin solution to prevent modifications or “trading” of the registrar sequence.
Phase 4: Round one of batch processing—Once the registration system is activated, a domain name will be randomly selected from the list supplied by the registrar assigned position number one. This domain name will then be entered into the registry database. Once the registrar with sequence one is allocated a domain name, the system “activates” the list supplied by the registrar who has been assigned position number two. A domain name is selected at random from the list and entered into the system. If the domain name chosen is unavailable, then another name is chosen at random from the registrar’s list until one of the following occurs:
· A successful registration is complete.
· The registrar has no more available names on its list.
· The batch time frame concludes.
This process will be repeated for each registrar in the random sequence and will rotate through all registrars for a 12-hour period.
Phase 5: Results and Resubmissions—At the end of each batch, the results of registrations are returned to the registrar. Registrars are then allowed a fixed period of time to submit a new list of domains for the second batch of processing. The batches will continue in twelve-hour blocks until the number of registrations being submitted falls below a specified volume.
Phase 6: Commencing Normal Registration Procedures—When it is determined that the demand for new registration volumes has fallen below a certain number, all registrars will be advised that the batch processing has concluded and the registry will be activated on a specific date and time to accept new registrations directly into the registry via the XRP.
The round robin solution provides the following benefits:
· Neutral, impartial allocation of domain names during the start-up period
· Effective management of technical resource issues
· Non-discriminatory application process for all parties of new domain names
· Scalable and effective support for any volume of registrations
· Flexible system capable of responding to rapidly changing volumes
· Inexpensive solution implementation
· Affordable to all members of the Internet community.
The Intellectual Property Notification Service and the round robin solution will effectively moderate the anticipated volumes of registration requests without having any significant impact on fairness, stability, or system resources. The JVTeam solution is fully scalable so that stability is assured even if registration volumes greatly exceed predictions. Only JVTeam has the experience and knowledge to develop and implement this solution.
For a discussion of projected registration volumes, see Registry Operator’s Proposal Section II.2.5.
Because of the restricted nature of the .biz TLD, the “start-up period” should last no more than sixty (60) days.
JVTeam does not intend to place numerical restrictions on the number of registrations by a registrant. Individuals may indeed have legitimate commercial reasons for wanting multiple individual names. However, registrants will be required to self-certify that each registration is reasonably related to the business of the registrant, there will be a natural limitation on the number of registrations an individual would make. Registrations in excess of this natural limit would be in violation of the registry Charter. These restrictions will help to ensure that the .biz TLD remains a business TLD and that ICANN has an effective proof of concept of a truly business-focused domain space.
JVTeam does not propose pricing mechanisms to dampen a rush for registration on initial offering of the TLD. Registrars will set all registration prices. To encourage businesses to use the new TLD, individual registrants must not be discouraged from registering in the new domain. Higher price points would significantly impact the perceived “fairness” of the process since it could severely restrict access by small businesses. It would also involve a somewhat arbitrary allocation of price points to domain names.
As discussed above, JVTeam does not intend to implement a “sunrise” or “daybreak” period. Such periods would violate JVTeam’s neutrality and are fraught with implementation and policy concerns. However, also as noted above, JVTeam will implement, as far as technically possible, any such period required by ICANN.
JVTeam intends to establish a purely commercial and business TLD. The need for a purely commercial space on the Internet is clear. Despite the existence of numerous TLDs on the Internet presently, none operate in a truly commercial manner that are available for consumers to easily navigate the World Wide Web to locate legitimate businesses and entities.
Despite the existence of numerous TLDs on the Internet, it remains difficult, if not impossible, for consumers to locate legitimate businesses on the Internet. When initially developed, the .com TLD was designed for commercial use only. However, because of the fact that there was never any enforcement of the commercial nature of .com, either on the front-end through representations or verifications, or on the back-end through dispute resolution, the commercial requirement for .com was dropped. As a result, even though many entities were successful in registering their business name as a .com, an even larger number of trademark, service mark, trade name, and business owners were forced to adopt domain names that may be similar, but not identical, to their mark or name. In addition, many of the desired commercial domain names have been adopted by persons or entities using the mark for personal, political or other noncommercial purposes. There currently exists no place on the Internet for entirely commercial domain names. The lack of such a space limits legitimate e-commerce and often times creates consumer confusion with respect to use of the Internet. Absent such a commercial space, users of the Internet are forced to weed through countless personal, noncommercial, or even non-used Websites, to locate the information they need.
JVTeam proposes .biz as a restricted TLD. Only businesses and entities desiring to use the domain name for legitimate business and commercial purposes may register domain names in .biz. This restriction forms the core policy for .biz.
The need to keep individual personal uses out of .biz is apparent. For the reasons set forth above, a purely commercial TLD will provide a forum for businesses to advertise and conduct their business on the Internet in such a manner that make it easier for consumers to locate them. To avoid the prospect of the .biz TLD becoming a generic unrestricted TLD, like .com, where personal noncommercial uses of the domain names are permitted, such registrations will not be allowed.
Registrants will be required to certify that the name chosen is reasonably related to the business of the registrant. Violation of this principle (i.e., [company]stinks.biz likely would not be a commercial use) would be a violation of the TLD charter and could result in cancellation of the name by the registry pursuant to a UCDRP challenge.
In addition, JVTeam will abide by full Internet standards regarding naming and reserved names including, RFC 1034, RFC 1123, RFC 2606 and RFC 2352.
JVTeam’s plan to introduce stable evolutionary rather than revolutionary changes in Internet DNS policy and processes mandates that changes to the domain name registration process be minimal. JVTeam proposes a registration process virtually identical to current processes with a few additions. The registrants will provide the necessary registration information through registrars who will have the functional interface with the registry. Registrants will be asked to provide the owner’s contact information along with contact information from the administrative, technical, and billing contacts. They will be asked to provide the name and IP address for a primary and secondary nameserver.
In addition to these items, already required for registrations in the existing generic TLDs, the registrant will be asked to represent, warrant and acknowledge that:
· He or she has the authority to enter into the registration agreement on behalf of his or her business.
· The domain name will be used primarily for business of commercial purposes. These representations are essential to the registrations process as well as for the dispute resolution proceedings for a violation of the charter for the TLD.
Furthermore, a prospective domain name registrant in the .biz TLD space will be asked to provide a brief description of the business or commercial use for which he or she will use the domain name. Although this description will never be verified in advance by the registry, it will provide additional information to consumers about the nature of the business that is located at that particular domain name space and it will aid in the UCDRP should a dispute arise over the domain name. JVTeam will note that although it will not certify that the domain name registrant is using the name for primarily business or commercial purposes, it does not foreclose the idea that individual registrars may institute, as a value-added service, their own verification service to certify that the Website is indeed a commercial or business entity engaged in the business described in their domain name application. Such information will also be included in the Whois directory.
Finally, a registrant may be given the option of electing to provide additional information in its application by his or her registrar to include in a file maintained by JVTeam. Although such voluntarily provided information will be stored and maintained by JVTeam, the file containing such information shall be made available to the public both through each of the participating registrar’s Websites as well as any other Website or service that desires to make available such information to the public. JVTeam envisions that registrars and/or other services will use such information to provide yellow-page style directories of businesses as a value-added service for its customers. The additional information that may be voluntarily solicited and provided by businesses may include the businesses SIC Code, type of business (i.e., sole proprietorship, corporation, partnership, Ltd., limited liability company, etc.), its number of employees, whether the Website is E-commerce enabled, state and/or country of incorporation, and locations around the world as well as the locations of the businesses headquarters.
JVTeam would like to stress that all such information will only be requested by registrars that wish to participate in the program and will only be solicited from registrants on a voluntary basis. A registrar may not require any registrant to provide such information during the application process. JVTeam may elect to charge a nominal administrative fee to the registrar for any additional information provided by the registrant to cover the costs of maintaining the extra fields in its databases.
JVTeam will require that registrars collect a certification from the registrant that they are a business, that the name is reasonably related to the registrant’s business, and that the domain name will be used for commercial purposes only. This certification will form the basis for the deletion of a registered name through the UCDRP where necessary and a registration will not be made without a completed certification. JVTeam will not, however, deny initial registrations except for duplicate requests.
To ensure fairness and neutrality in operations, any individual that is denied a registration will be able to send a request for review to its registrar to demonstrate that the requested name meets the requirements of the TLD charter. Upon an adequate showing, the individual will be permitted to register the requested name. As a general matter, however, JVTeam does not intend to deny initial registrations.
As noted above, JVTeam proposes a UCDRP to permit challenges to domain names that are made or are being used in violation of the charter. Any third party will be able to utilize this open process. This approach will promote stability by ensuring that any claim against a given name will follow a formal, fair, and open procedure for resolution.
The Internet has evolved over recent years such that it is now the realm of individuals every bit as much as it has been the realm of organizations in the past.
The DNS has been developed, to date, with an almost complete lack of true differentiation between the use and purposes of the name spaces. Indicative of this issue is the lack of an individual, commercial domain name space. JVTeam submits that the establishment of a restricted commercial TLD will benefit the Internet community by allowing for separation of business and individual content and functionality on the Internet. Utilizing business TLDs, Internet users better will be able to search through the tremendous amount of information on the World Wide Web and more efficiently target information for certain groups or individuals. This added specialization will increase the functionality of the DNS.
The Internet has evolved over recent years such that it is now the pinnacle of conducting business in the new millennium. Without a strong commercial presence on the Internet, it is nearly impossible for a business to survive. Moreover, it is essential for businesses to be easily accessible to consumers who can easily locate targeted businesses to conduct commercial transactions on the Web. With a purely commercial domain name space, businesses will be able to establish more easily such a strong Internet presence and be located on the Web by their current and prospective customers.
Creation of a designated space on the World Wide Web for individuals, entities, and organizations engaging in commercial activity will provide an important proof of concept for the establishment of chartered or restricted TLDs. In addition, JVTeam’s proposal to create a business directory service by adding information to the Whois database will further differentiate the TLD and provide additional innovative functionality for its use.
The JVTeam believes that the legitimate needs of businesses for a restricted space on the Internet have not been adequately addressed by the global DNS. The purpose of this application is to correct that deficiency. To date, businesses have been forced to operate in the unrestricted TLD space. That domain space is in no way tailored to the needs of businesses and often operates counter to the interests of a given business or businesses. The Internet is an important business tool for today’s companies. The .biz TLD will enhance the ability of businesses to more efficiently and effectively utilize that tool.
The intent of the .biz domain space is to implement a namespace that will permit every business to participate in a business community on the Internet. JVTeam’s intent, however, should be clear from the outset that the uses of the .biz TLD go much further than the simple creation of business web pages. We believe that .biz will serve as a portal to a wide variety of new and yet to be identified Internet services that businesses might want to have associated with their online identity.
Initially, the .biz TLD will allow businesses to establish a presence in a dedicated online business community for such purposes as e-mail and company websites. Beyond these basic functionalities, JVTeam believes that the .biz DNS can become a platform for numerous future applications. For example, by taking advantage of the extensibility of the Whois database to be developed by JVTeam, businesses will be able to opt into a customized business directory that is linked to the .biz domain space. This directory will allow businesses to determine what information they want to distribute on the Internet. Possible additional new services include:
· Digital Certification
· Affinity Services
· Business-controlled Information Access and Distribution.
Registrars and other third-party providers would implement these additional services and DNS functionalities. The registry would provide, on a totally open and even basis, the centralized secure database functions necessary to support these new functionalities. Businesses would benefit from the availability of a totally secure, yet highly customizable, commercial data clearinghouse.
The JVTeam proposal for .biz creates competition among registries by creating a new global market segment that cannot effectively be served by existing registries. The .biz TLD allows new focused business functionality in the DNS that simply is not provided by legacy registry systems. This new competition will spur further innovation and refinement among all TLDs to ensure ever-increasing market share. Consumers will benefit from enhanced functionalities, improved performance, increased security, and a new choice for TLD services.
The .biz TLD also will enhance competition among registrars. The development of a business directory file available to all registries will provide registrars with an opportunity to distinguish their service offerings and innovation. As the value of the extensibility of the JVTeam platform is recognized in the industry, registrars will develop newer and better functionalities in an attempt to further distinguish their services from their competitors. These competitive developments will greatly benefit individual consumers and further advance the state-of-the-art of the Internet and the DNS.
JVTeam intends to ensure maximum leverage and instructional experience from the introduction of TLDs. In pursuit of this goal, JVTeam is proposing several methods of capturing and measuring information. In particular through the use of online feedback forms for use by registrars and registrants, technical discussion groups and the ongoing compilation and analysis of the captured data, JVTeam hopes to compile a clear picture of the impacts of the introduction of a new commercial namespace. This information will be made available to ICANN and/or other relevant bodies for use in the release of further TLDs.
The .biz domain space represents an exciting new branch in the ongoing evolution of the DNS – a TLD that is specifically for businesses. The introduction of .biz will pave the way for new TLDs by providing a new application for a TLD, by taking an innovative approach to registry services, by addressing the unique challenges of the start-up period, by offering an Intellectual Property Notification Service, and by operating according to a comprehensive marketing and operational plan. These concepts represent JVTeam’s evolutionary approach to the ongoing development of the DNS.
The core concept being evaluated in .biz is the notion of a TLD space that is explicitly restricted for the use of businesses and other commercial entities. The existing TLDs do not effectively differentiate between commercial and noncommercial registrants. The .biz domain space will be an unsponsored chartered domain space exclusively for commercial use and hence this new application for a TLD creates an excellent opportunity for evaluating such domain spaces.
The focus for the .biz domain space will be global acceptance by Internet users. It is JVTeam’s contention that a carefully constructed marketing plan combined with user focused features will provide an extremely attractive and successful consumer product.
Concept to be proven: That a domain space intended specifically for businesses will meet a currently unmet market need.
A policy of purpose—JVTeam acknowledges the substantial work undertaken by ICANN in the development of policy in particular with relations to the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy. For the purposes of .biz, the charter of the space will be administered by registrars according to all of the requirements of the currently active UDRP as well as an additional section that covers the issue of charter compliance. This is an evolutionary application of the UDRP to effectively deal with charter violations without compromising the efficiency of domain name registration and administration.
Concept to be proven: That charter compliance may be affectively administered via an extended UDRP.
An innovative approach to the start-up period—One of the most challenging issues attached to the introduction of any new TLD will be the initial rush for registrations during the start-up period. There are three key issues: managing the extremely high transaction volumes, providing some mechanism to moderate registration volumes at levels which cannot be accurately predicted during the initial period, and ensuring fairness and evenhandedness in the allocation of domain names.
It is the JVTeams’s contention that the round robin solution will prove extremely valuable as a solution for future controlled introduction of new TLDs.
Concept to be proven: That the round robin solution will provide an effective and fair solution to managing high transaction volumes during the startup period and set a standard for the introduction of future TLDs.
A Better registry/registrar Solution—The existing registry/registrar model has in large part been successful at introducing competition at the registrar level. However, the system has failed to meet the demands of a transient registrant community in particular with relation to the transfer of registrar operation. Because of a lack of consistency in Whois formats and authentication procedures, many registrars have struggled with management and automation of this procedure. The lack of clear guidelines for the presentation of Whois data has also created significant confusion for domain name license holders with several instances of inadvertent and or unauthorized registrar transfers and change of registrant operations.
The JVTeam believes that the manner in which registrant details are stored must be reviewed so that future registries do not suffer the same administrative shortcomings of the existing registry/registrar model. One such solution, and the one proposed by JVTeam, which could be introduced is the concept of the “fat” registry incorporating a centralized Whois service.
Concept to be proven: That the fat registry model will provide solutions to many of the existing administrative and security issues with .com.
A competitive registry environment—The JVTeam registry will represent the next step forward in the evolution of TLD registry operations. The solution will draw on JVTeam’s extensive experience in database management, domain name services, channel management, registry and registrar experience, policy administration, and the provision of high transaction software and infrastructure. This unique skill set and experience enables the JVTeam to understand the existing issues in the single registry environment and innovate in all key areas including better adapted functionality, better service standards, increased reliability, effective marketing and business development. The result in all this for the consumer is the ability to choose a domain name backed up by a registry capable of delivering these improvements.
Concept to be proven: That a registry which provides the next generation of services assist in cultivating a competitive multiple registry environment.
The introduction of .biz will be an evolutionary step for the domain name system. The JVTeam proposal poses several key areas for evaluation in the interests of gathering information for the future introduction of TLDs and additional registry providers. JVTeam is committed to ensuring that lessons learned in the introduction of .biz will benefit the whole DNS community. Only the JVTeam, with its demonstrated history of neutrality and intimate involvement in the DNS, is capable of understanding these issues and their implications for the future of the domain name system.
JVTeam is committed to establishing simple, measurable, and attainable reference points for assessing the success of the introduction of the .biz domain space. JVTeam will draw on its in-depth understanding of the entire DNS environment to set these points of reference in close consultation with all interested parties.
Listening to the end users—JVTeam understands the importance of this phase of new TLDs in the ongoing development of the DNS. JVTeam is also committed to the notion that domain names are much more than a technical object, they are a critical tool for business and end users; therefore, it is ultimately they who should judge the success of any new TLDs. JVTeam will take, at all stages, a consultative approach to measuring the success of the new TLD and as there are several distinct “user groups,” the measures of success will be customized for each one. JVTeam will seek input from several different bodies and communities in defining exactly what the success criteria should be and seek their assistance and in evaluating the results. The evaluation process will be undertaken in close consultation with ICANN representatives.
Key groups who will be encouraged to participate in this process will include:
· The end user community (domain name license holders)
· The registrar community
· The Internet service provider community
· The IETF
· Other registries.
The table below provides an example of the evaluation methods and measures of success that could be used for specific concepts. These methods and measures will be further refined as part of an ongoing dialogue with all relevant parties.
SAMPLE EVALUATION METHODS AND MEASURES FOR SUCCESS
Measure of success
The utility of the DNS can be extended via a TLD intended for business use as opposed to individual use
Measure number of domains registered and activated with new functionality
>70% domains registered in first 3 months of launch activate new functionality
Policy application through charter
Monitor registrations during first 3 months and automate an audit of charter compliance at registry level
<5% charter violations
Round robin solution to start-up
Feedback from registrars and registrants via registrars and ICANN
>70% positive feedback
Measure disputes under UDRP during start up period via registrars
<5% of registrations precipitate UCDRP actions
Additional registry functionality creates competitive edge for the new TLD
Ongoing market research on perceived value of additional functionality and its impact on demand
Market research indicating competitive value proposition of new TLD over existing spaces
A better registry/registrar model will provide solutions to administrative issue
Registrar feedback online forms
>70% reduction in manual administrative functions such as transfer of registrar
registrant feedback on online forms via registrars
>70% positive feedback
Registry level authentication for business domains
Count number of domain hi-jacking claims
>90% decrease in hi-jacking claims
Trademark Notification System
Registrar feedback on online forms
>70% positive feedback
Registrant feedback online forms via registrars
>70% positive feedback
Feedback forms provided to WIPO, IPC for distribution amongst legal representatives
>70% positive feedback
By taking a consultative approach to evaluation and by actively facilitating feedback mechanisms, JVTeam will evaluate the success of the .biz domain space and utilize the information to constantly improve the registry’s services and operations as well as provide it to ICANN for use in the ongoing program of introducing new TLDs and registry level competition.
Because JVTeam proposes an evolutionary approach to introduction of new TLDs, ICANN will have a ready reference point in the existing TLDs. The data to be gathered and reported to ICANN will provide the necessary input to pave the way for a technically stable, multiple registry environment.
JVTeam submits that the results of its evaluation of the introduction of the .biz registry will assist ICANN and the Internet Community at large to:
· Confirm the technical stability of a multiple registry environment with particular attention to management and distribution of zone files
· Confirm the commercial viability of additional TLDs
· Confirm the commercial viability of enhancing TLD utility and expansion into arenas outside of traditional uses
· Confirm the “moderated” approach to the start-up issues associated with introducing a new TLD
· Identify improvements to the process for the introduction of new TLDs by capturing feedback and suggestions from the registrar community
· Confirm that the “fat registry” model is the way forward for a multiple-registry environment.
For this round of allocations there is not any substantial existing data to base predictions and projections for technical and administrative issues. By collecting, analyzing, and publishing data gathered from this process, it will be much simpler for ICANN and future registries to project requirements for system and administrative resources in launching further TLDs.
ICANN not only must consider the impact of the introduction of new TLDs, but also must consider the impact of the introduction of different kinds of TLDs. A .biz type TLD is likely the only commercial introduction for this round. ICANN must have the data necessary to consider such introductions in the future.